ZnO NPs prepared by this method exhibited strong potential for biomedical applications such as its excellent anticancer and antibacterial activity. The Phβ-GBP-ZnO NPs were spherical in shape with a particle size of 20–50 nm and restrained the growth of S. aureus and P. vulgaris. Epidemic disease cholera, a serious diarrheal disease caused by the intestinal infection of Gram-negative bacterium V. cholera, mainly affects populations in the developing countries [81, 94]. However, most studies have focused on their inhibitory actions on bacterial infections, and there is limited studies evaluating the interaction between ZnO-NPs and viruses. This helps to place the in vivo behavior of zinc oxide nanoparticles in the proper context. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The XRD patterns and Raman spectra show that both synthesis routes lead to single-phase ZnO. is available on our Permission Requests page. Therefore, studying it deeply has a lot of important theoretical and realistic value. Among metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have been demonstrated to exert antimicrobial activities against various human pathogens [ 15 ]. Photo-triggered ROS generation by ZnO NPs and the resulting phototoxicity in cells have found use in antibacterial and anticancer applications. explored the effects of ZnO NPs on human liver cancer HepG2 cells and its possible pharmacological mechanism [42]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were provided by Institute of Feed Science, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China. Nanomedicine. Aiming at the development of nanomedicine against cholera, Sarwar et al. The addition of radical scavengers such as mannitol, vitamin E, and glutathione could block the bactericidal action of ZnO NPs, potentially revealing that ROS production played a necessary function in the antibacterial properties of ZnO NPs. Compared to bare ZnO NPs, RGD peptide modification also increased the targeting effects of ZnO NPs on integrin αvβ3 receptors overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells [47]. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. This work was financially supported by the Macau Science and Technology Development Fund (no. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from The particle sizes of zinc oxide nanoparticles were determined by AFM (AFM, SPM-9500J3, Shimadzu CO., Japan) and Zetasizer Nano-ZS90 (Malvern Instruments) by the method of Du et al. It should be noted that S. aureus was more susceptible to Phβ-GBP-ZnO NPs than P. vulgaris. Furthermore, the luminescence was very stable during cell culturing and the cells were alive at 45 min of exposure. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), known for their chemical stability and strong adsorption, are used in everyday items such as cosmetics, sunscreens, and prophylactic drugs. These results afforded valuable insights into the mechanism of ZnO NPs-induced apoptosis in human liver HepG2 cells. It was evidenced by an outstanding reduction of blood glucose and increasing insulin levels as well as improving serum zinc status in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The inflammatory markers, interleukin-1 (IL-1α) and CRP, were also notably decreased after ZnO NPs treatment, concomitant with an increase in nitric oxide (NO) and serum antioxidant enzyme (PON-1) levels in diabetic rats. 2013). ZnO NPs are listed as a kind of safe substance by the FDA. Visualization of LC3 immunofluorescence showed a remarkable fluorescence and an essential component of autophagosome after exposure of SKOV3 cells at higher concentration of ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs exposed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity by dose-dependently suppressing NO production as well as the related protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. So, as a type of safe and cheap luminescent labels, the ZnO@polymer core-shell nanoparticles can be used as fluorescent probes for cell imaging in vitro [121]. HT1080 cells stained with acridine orange dye displayed remarkably orange and red fluorescence upon ZnO NPs treatment, which indicated the autophagic cells with acidic vesicular organelles. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Laboratory for Molecular Tumor Biology, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recognized ZnO as safe due to its lack of or very weak dark toxicity in vitro and in vivo (Hu et al. 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